There are lots of reasons why Macau is a good place for a family holiday and you might be surprised to learn that there are plenty of things to do in Macau for kids. A playground for punters looking for excitement at the newest glitzy resort, the wave of Western-style casinos in Macau that have popped up over the past few years turned Macau into a child-friendly holiday destination.
Macau also has a beautiful Historic Centre of Macau, which is a UNESCO World Heritage treasure of 22 buildings and public places. These historic treasures, when combined with Macau’s contemporary attractions, makes it easy to design a balanced Macau itinerary.
The other advantage about holidaying in Macau with kids is that it’s small and safe and most Macau landmarks and attractions are easy to get to.
A few days of exploring the top places to visit in Macau, watching dazzling shows and taking part in fun activities adds up to a memorable family holiday. So, here’s what to do in Macau with your munchkins.
- What’s New For Kids In Macau
- Things to do in Macau for kids – Theme Parks
- 5- Experience the thrill of Batman Dark Flight
- 6- Meet the Looney Tunes gang at Warner Brothers Fun Zone
- 7- Get a bird’s-eye view from the Golden Reel
- 8- Planet J Theme Park
- 9- Meet Thomas the Tank Engine at The Little Big Club
- 10- Climb the Eiffel Tower and see the Light Show
- 11- Ride the gondolas at the Venetian
- 12- Cool down at Galaxy Grand Resort Deck
- Shows in Macau For Kids
- Kids Clubs in Macau
- Top Things To Do In Macau For An Adrenaline Rush
- Educational Things To Do In Macau For Kids
- Things To Do In Macau With Kids – Outdoors
- Things To Do In Macau With Kids Involving Food
- Free things to do in Macau
- Macau Cinemas
- Where to stay in Macau with kids
What’s New For Kids In Macau
1- See the daredevil stunts at the Elēkrŏn show
Book some seats at Elēkrŏn, which is a show that has dangerous dare-devil circus stunts and parkour acrobatics.
With pyrotechnics, special effects and jaw-dropping stunts, this futuristic live show is an action-packed edge-of-your-seat extravaganza put together by an international cast.
Set in 2088 to a backdrop of a bleak future world, Elektron is a heroic tale of survival and quest to find a lost power station in the desert to save a civilisation.
Elektron is at Studio City Event Center until 21 July 2019. See ticket prices here.
2- MGM Lion Dance Training
The MGM Lion Dance Championship－Junior Lion Dance Training Program is a programme to train the future generation of lion dancers and lots of fun for the kids.
It’s specially designed for children between the ages of 5 and 8 years who will be trained by award-winning lion dance master, Mr Mak Chi Leong, from Hong Wai Dragon & Lion Dance Association Macau.
The MGM Lion Dance Training Program is at ArtSpace at MGM Macau from June 30 to August 23 2019.
3- Virtual Reality at Legend Heroes Park
You and the kids can lose yourselves in a virtual world at Legend Heroes Park, which is an uber-cool Tech-based Entertainment (TBE) Park in Macau.
Cool attractions include:
- Robot VR, which is a thrilling Virtual Reality ride where you’ll experience the G forces as you shoot up and plunge down a seven-metre drop
- GYRO 360° Virtual Reality is a free spinning 3-axis gyroscope
- Flying Jet is a cool Virtual Reality attraction that offers an ultimate jet flying experience.
Get dropped into the virtual reality VR Maze, test your rhythm on the Beat Saber VR game and hang out with KPOP stars.
The Raceroom AMG! Raceroom Racing Experience is a free motorsport game with access to famous international races and circuits.
Legend Heroes Park is pm Level 1, Times Squares, Studio City and is open from 11 am to 11 pm daily. Games cost from MOP120. See more prices here.
4- Bounce around at Flip Out
Flip Out is a fun trampoline park where the whole family can spend time without getting bored.
Join a jump class or fitness session or relax in the refreshment area.
There are trampolines for all ages and abilities, including fun Stunt Box Zones and areas for smaller children.
Flip out costs MOP150 per hour (children under 18) and $200 per hour (adults) or $50 per hour for accompanying adults who are not using the facilities.
Flip Out is on Level 2, West Wing, Studio City and is open from Monday to Thursday (2 pm to 9 pm) and Friday, Saturday and Sunday (12 pm to 9 pm).
Ready to go to Macau? Book a range of Macau attractions here.
Things to do in Macau for kids – Theme Parks
5- Experience the thrill of Batman Dark Flight
Strap into the Batplane and fly through Gotham City with Batman as you do battle with The Joker, Two-Face and Bane.
Batman Dark Flight is a thrilling 4D flight simulation built around the DC Comics Super Hero Batman theme.
The action-packed story line is an adrenaline-pumping adventure that will put Batman fans right in the action with one of the world’s favourite superheroes.
You need to be between 100 cm and 195cm tall to do this ride and kids shorter than 140 cm need to be accompanied by an adult over 18.
Batman Dark Flight is on Level 2, West Wing, Studio City, Macau
6- Meet the Looney Tunes gang at Warner Brothers Fun Zone
The sprawling Warner Brothers Fun Zone is an indoor playground themed around favourite family characters from Warner Brothers, DC Comics, Hanna-Barbera Productions and Looney Tunes.
There are plenty of attractions for kids of all ages, from interactive games and rides to the DC Comics Super Hero Action Arena where kids can get active climbing, swinging and jumping.
The Tom and Jerry Picnic Playground is perfect for toddlers.
There are also shops, restaurants, a cartoon cinema and an area for birthday parties.
Entry is free for infants (under the age of 1). Children over eight years old can be left unaccompanied as long as a parent or guardian registers the child.
Warner Bros Fun Zone is on Level 3, West Wing, Studio City, Macau
7- Get a bird’s-eye view from the Golden Reel
Suspended 130m above the ground between two towers, a ride in Asia’s highest figure-8 Ferris wheel is an experience where the whole family can enjoy fantastic views of Macau.
Golden Reel at Studio City is also the world’s first figure-8 Ferris wheel, has 17 Steampunk-themed cabins.
An adult should accompany children under 12.
The Golden Reel is on Level 3, West Wing, Studio City, Macau. Book your tickets to ride the Golden Reel here.
If you like the five activities above, you might want to book a family room at Studio City. Check out prices of rooms at Studio City here.
8- Planet J Theme Park
If you have a teenager who loves games, you could lose them for hours at Planet J Theme Park as there are enough fun things to do in Macau at Planet J to keep the kids happy.
With eight gaming zones and over 200 games, Planet J Theme Park offers hours of live-action role-playing.
There are augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) games for individual play and group challenges.
Planet J is at Shop 3009, Level 3, Sands Cotai Central
9- Meet Thomas the Tank Engine at The Little Big Club
Meet Thomas the Tank Engine, Barney the dinosaur, Angelina Ballerina and Bob The Builder along with other fun characters at the Sands® Cotai Central.
Besides being available for photos in the Paradise Gardens, there’s a daily Thomas Friendship party between 3.30 m and 5 pm in the Urumqi Ballroom.
And the lively Little Big Club ALL STARS Parade is free at the Shoppes at Cotai Central at 130pm daily.
Meet your favourite characters at the Paradise Gardens, Sands Cotai Central from 11.30am to 12.30 pm and 5.30 pm to 7 pm daily.
10- Climb the Eiffel Tower and see the Light Show
Macau’s version of the Eiffel Tower has two observation decks (on the 7th and 37th floors). It’s a 40-second elevator ride to the top, where there’s a dazzling view of the Cotai strip.
The Eiffel Tower light show is a coordinated kaleidoscope of coloured lights that strobe to the beat of Jazz music.
11- Ride the gondolas at the Venetian
Float past shops and under footbridges to the melody of popular Italian opera tunes like O Sole Mio or Santa Lucia in Macau’s version of Venice.
You don’t have to go to Venice to experience a ride in a gondola as the Venetian Macao is an impressive replica, from the puffy white clouds in the painted sky ceiling to the buildings and street lamps.
For a quick snack, the Venetian Food Court has a wide choice of food, from hamburgers and pizza to wanton noodles.
The Venetian gondolas operate in the Grand Canal (11 am to 10 pm) and the Marco Polo Canal and San Luca Canals (11 am to 7 pm). Children under 12 must be accompanied by an adult. You can check out the Venetian gondola ride here.
12- Cool down at Galaxy Grand Resort Deck
Of the Macau pools, Galaxy’s Grand Resort Deck is a sprawling waterpark with a white-sand beach and water attractions the kids will love, including waterslides, waterfalls and gushing geysers.
Home to the world’s longest Skytop Aquatic Adventure River Ride and the world’s largest Skytop Wave Pool, it’s a fun place to cool off.
Family members who don’t want to get wet can relax in the Skytop Gardens or dine in one of the poolside restaurants and lounges.
Entrance to the Grand Resort Deck is free for hotel guests but if you’re not staying at one of these five hotels, you have the option of booking the Grand Resort Deck Day Pass (MOP888 for two people includes free admission for two children under age six).
Entrances for the Grand Resort Deck are on the second floors of Galaxy Hotel and Hotel Okura.
Shows in Macau For Kids
13- See House of Dancing Water Show
The House of Dancing Water is an extravaganza that can only be described as part acrobatics, part water and light display, part stunt show and all awesome.
The show took five years and 250 million USD to develop and, even if the kids don’t follow the love story, there are plenty of tricks and flips to wow them.
House of Dancing Water is at City of Dreams. The show is suitable for kids above six years of age and kids under 12 must be accompanied by an adult.
Kids Clubs in Macau
14- Qube Kingdom
The kids will have a blast climbing and sliding at Qube Kingdom, which has extensive indoor and outdoor play zones.
There’s a carousel straight out of Les Jardins de Luxembourg, a ball pool and gaming consoles for teens.
Qube Kingdom is at the Parisian Macao.
Qube is a 6m tall climbing attraction that offers hours of fun on the slides, V-Net bridge, zig-zag net climbers and tunnels.
Entry includes access for one adult to accompany each child and it’s in the perfect spot to keep the kids entertained while one parent goes shopping.
There are video games, air hockey and internet access for teenagers.
Day visitor access to Qube is at San Luca Canal, Level 3, Grand Canal Shoppes, The Venetian.
16- J28 W Kids’ Club
JW Kids’ Club offers a heap of fun and educational activities, such as the reading tree, bouncy gorge, slides and tunnels, climbing spider web and a video games room.
If you’re planning on spending at least MOP 3000 at the Promenade Shops, you can drop your kids off for free for two hours to have fun while you shop plus you get a voucher to use at the club for each additional MOP 2,000 spent and can use up to four vouchers a day.
JW Marriot Macau
17- Kids City
Divided into four zones – Dream, Excite, Create and Explore – Kids City has lots to keep kids of all ages busy. From the giant futuristic “Peak Adventure” slide to climbing structures and art workshops.
There’s the multimedia Arcade Matrix and a fun Dream Theater, where kids can dress up and pretend to be a princess or a superhero.
Kids’ City also has toy vending machines and a party room where you can host themed parties.
Kids City is on Level 3, City of Dreams. It’s open from 10.30 am to 7 pm. A parent must accompany children under five years of age.
Top Things To Do In Macau For An Adrenaline Rush
18- Do the SkyWalk at Macau Tower
Macau Tower is a 338m tall landmark of contemporary Macau.
Fun ways to spend some time with the kids at Macau Tower are seeing Macau from the Observation Lounge, watching a 3D movie in the theatre, shopping in Toys “R” us and going on the SkyWalk or Tower Climb.
Skywalk is a stroll around the outer perimeter of the tower on a 1.8m-wide ledge with no handrail.
The Tower Climb is a 100m climb up vertical ladders on the mast.
There’s no age restriction and kids as young as two years old have participated in the Skywalk.
Children need to fit into the harnesses securely and anyone under 18 needs to have written authorisation from their parents.
19- Bungy Jump off Macau Tower
You can bungy jump in several cities but there’s nowhere as special as Macau Tower, which holds the title of the world’s highest bungy jump.
The bungy jump is a thrilling 233m leap at 200km/hour for age 10 and above (parental consent is required for anyone under 18).
Families with younger kids will get a thrill out of seeing the view of Macau from the Observation Lounge and there’s a huge Toys “R” Us store on the second floor.
Macau Tower has several options to choose for lunch, from cafés to Macau’s only 360° revolving restaurant.
Suggested time: Three hours (including the bungee jump, which takes about two hours from the time you register). Book your bungy jump here.
Educational Things To Do In Macau For Kids
20- Explore Ruins of St Paul’s and Senado Square
Macau became a Portuguese colony in the 16th century and remained so until 1999. It has a blend of European and Asian culture that is fascinating to explore.
Learning about the history of a destination while you’re there is one of the best ways to broaden your knowledge.
The Ruins of St Paul’s is Macau’s most recognisable landmark and a Macau sightseeing trip is not complete without visiting St Paul’s.
St Paul’s was a college for Jesuit priests and a cathedral, however, the buildings were destroyed in a typhoon and burnt down.
The 16th-century facade is a famous spot to snap a family selfie.
Admission is free and the site is only a short walk from Senado Square, a piazza with Portuguese cobblestone paving.
Even after so many centuries, Senado Square has managed to hang on to its European look.
Colourful Portuguese buildings adorn the square and there are plenty of shops if you’re after a spot of shopping.
Macau Museum in Mount Fortress has free entry for kids under 12 and has a programme of activities all year round.
Suggested time: Two hours (take a leisurely walk around and snap lots of photos)
21- Explore A-Ma Temple
Back in 1488, Macau’s most famous Taoist temple was built into the side of a rocky hill so the view is fantastic.
A-Ma Temple is a delight to explore and the kids love wandering along the winding paths through moon gates and prayer halls, pavilions and courtyards.
It’s the place to watch local traditions as it’s a working temple where locals come to burn incense and pray for good fortune.
Suggested time: Two hours
22- Discover the plight of the Giant Pandas
There are around 2,060 pandas left in the world and pandas are listed as “vulnerable” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)’s Red List.
Seeing the giant pandas is an experience that will help the kids understand and connect with the plight of this beautiful species.
Macau’s Giant Panda Pavilion is home to three pandas, with indoor quarters and an outdoor yard for the giant pandas to romp around.
There are also two red pandas Luo Luo and Tong Tong.
Admission to the Giant Panda Pavillion for kids under 12 is free.
23- Learn something new at the Macao Science Centre
Housed in an impressive space-aged building, the Macau Science Centre has interactive exhibitions, a planetarium with 3D space footage and an IMAX theatre.
12 galleries cover a variety of subjects including space, robotics, acoustics, physics, genetics, eco-conservation and food science.
Many of the galleries are colourful, interactive and attractive to kids. Kids will love the Science Express Gallery (with the colourful train and interactive exhibits), Fun Science Gallery (for children under 120cm), the hands-on Children Science Gallery and even the Food Science Gallery.
Check out the schedule for shows at the Planetarium here.
For younger kids, MSC Kids World has zones for pre-schoolers and the grade-schoolers zone has a three-storey playing facility, with ropes, nets, tunnels and bridges where kids can climb, scramble and slide.
The Macao Science Centre is at Avenida Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, Macau, open 10 am to 6 om daily. Tickets from MOP25 (admission for children under 2 is free). Find out more here.
24- Visit the Macau Maritime Museum
Built on the site where the first Portuguese explorers landed, Macau Maritime Museum is designed to resemble a boat with a white sail.
Built on the harbour, sailboats and cargo ships cruise past the museum, which has five sections to explore.
Here, you’ll learn about fishing techniques and marine technology.
There’s an aquarium gallery with four tanks devoted to different themes.
The museum is at Largo do Pagode da Barra, no. 1, Macao. Admission from 10MOP (depending on when you go) and entry for kids under 10 is free.
Things To Do In Macau With Kids – Outdoors
25- Go hiking in Coloane or Taipa
Although Macau is small, it has some surprisingly good hiking trails and there are a number of trails in Macau suitable for kids.
The Taipa Grande Trail is an easy trail suitable for kids in the Taipa Grande Nature Park.
The Taipa Pequena Trail is a good place for families as there are children’s playground while the Hác Sá Long Chao Kok Family Trail on Coloane Island is also a good place to enjoy the outdoors away from the busy city.
Here are more activities and events for outdoors and sporting fans.
26- Wander around Anim ‘Arte NAM VAN
Anim’Arte NAM VAN is a waterfront leisure precinct at Nam Van Lakeside Plaza,
There are shops selling local and handmade Macao products, join a workshop, watch a performance or wander around an exhibition.
There are restaurants and cafes and pedal boats on the lake suitable for families with kids over five years old if accompanied by an adult.
There’s a 30-minute show at 9 pm and 10 pm Saturdays and Sundays.
Where: Cybernetic Fountain of Nam Van Lake
27- Explore Lou Lim Leoc Garden
Exploring the Chinese Garden is a lovely way to spend a few hours when exploring Macau with kids.
This classical Chinese garden is a tranquil escape modelled after the traditional Chinese gardens of Suzhou.
Stretch your legs along the narrow pathways that meander past a lovely carp-filled pond filled with lotus flowers.
Kids love running beneath the arches and trying to spot the fish swimming below the six-way bridge.
28- Spend the day at Hac Sa Beach
On the southeast side of Coloane Island, Hac Sa Beach is a great spot to swim and play in the sand.
Hac Sa Beach is Macau’s largest natural beach and got its name from the black sand that was initially on the beach. Hac Sa 黑沙 means black sand in Chinese.
Hac Sa Beach is reasonably quiet and a spot to get away from crowds. There’s a public swimming pool to the rear of the beach (open from May to October), barbecue pits and a smattering of restaurants and shops.
Near the beach, Hac Sa Reservoir Country Park is a good spot for a stroll around the reservoir and across a suspension bridge. There are pedal boats for hire. It’s a great place for families.
29- Ride the cable car to Guia Hill
The five-minute ride on the cable car to the top of Guia Hill is an easy way for the family to get to the top.
The panorama of the Pearl River and islands from Guia Hill is worth seeing and those who want to stretch their legs will find the walk down the hill a pleasant stroll.
Where: Flora Garden Gate (Avenida Sidónio Pais)
Things To Do In Macau With Kids Involving Food
30- Hunt for the perfect Portuguese egg tart
Portuguese egg tarts are delicious and a yummy snack for kids in Macau.
In Macau, you’ll find egg tarts everywhere, as most bakeries and many restaurants serve up this sweet treat but there’s nowhere as famous as Lord Stow’s Bakery on Coloane Island where you can munch warm and caramelised brown on top tarts straight from the oven.
The concept of the Macanese egg tart began in 1989 after Andrew Stow visited Portugal. He created a Macanese version of Pasteis de Nata or custard tarts.
Stow’s egg tarts have become famous around the world. if you’re inspired to make this at home, here’s a Portuguese tart recipe.
31- Cook a hot pot meal
China’s 1,000-year-old hot pot tradition was introduced to Macau by Mongolian warriors who used their helmets to simmer soup over a fire.
Throughout China, hot pots are a favourite social activity and a way that Chinese families often share a meal.
It’s a communal way of eating, where you cook your meat, fish and vegetables in a communal hot pot at the table.
Macau has several hot pot restaurants including Xin at Sheraton Grande, Lei Ka Choi at Broadway Macau and Kwun Hoi Heen at Grand Coloane Resort.
Apart from egg tarts, almond cookies are next on the list of Macau’s most popular edible souvenir.
Wandering around the streets, you’ll see boxes of almond cookies everywhere, from street stands to high-end department stores.
The Koi Kei brand is the most well-known brand of almond cookie and the best place to go to eat local snacks is Taipa.
Macau’s almond cookies are baked with mung bean flour and have chunks of almonds.
They are not as sweet as you might expect and come in flavours such as almond cookies with shredded pork, black sesame or lard.
Free things to do in Macau
33- Ride the SkyCab to Wynn Palace
It’s a magical ride past golden dragons and above the colourful fountains of Performance Lake.
The short ride is free and it’s a spectacular way to enter Wynn Palace. You don’t have to stay at Wynn Palace to do the ride.
While you’re at Wynn Palace, have a peek at the Floral Creations display.
It’s an enchanting display of giant multi-coloured floral creations, such as a windmill from Holland, a carnival merry-go-round and a Ferris wheel.
SkyCab is at Wynn Palace Cotai, Junto à Avenida da Nave Desportiva, Macau.
34- See the dancing fountains of Performance Lake
The Performance Lake is a show of water jets synchronised to the beat of popular music.
It’s done on an impressive scale, with over 200 water nozzles and shooters projecting 800,000 gallons of water into the air.
Performance Lake is at Wynn Macao, Rua Cidade de Sintra, every 15 minutes Sunday to Friday from 11 am to 9.45 pm, Saturday and eve of a public holiday: 11 am to 10.45 pm. The best time to see it is at night.
35- Watch the Tree of Prosperity grow
The Tree of Prosperity is a choreographed show of patterns, music, video and lighting.
The “tree” has 2,000-plus branches and 98,000 leaves, some in 24-karat gold.
The short multimedia show is a symbol of prosperity that captures part of what makes Macau unique, with Chinese and Western astrological symbols rising from the floor.
Tree of Prosperity is in the Rotunda Atrium in Wynn Macau from 8.30am to midnight on the half hour.
36- Meet the Dragon of Fortune
The Dragon of Fortune is a dramatic multimedia creation that combines sculpture with stage lighting and audio enhancements to create a giant dragon that rises from the floor.
With smoke blowing out of its nostrils and glowing eyes, the Dragon of Fortune is an impressive sight as it emerges from a mist and slowly rises almost to the ceiling.
The Dragon of Fortune is in the Rotunda Atrium of Wynn Macau from 10 am to midnight on the hour.
37- See the jellyfish at the Moon Jellyfish Aquarium
The name spells it all – Moon Jellyfish Aquarium – one of the world’s largest water tanks devoted to moon jellyfish.
Although not a local marine species these critters were brought in from Taiwan and Japan, they continue to enchant, casting off stunning neon blue tones.
The glowing experience is a delightful thing to do in Macau for kids.
You’ll see it in the Encore Tower at the main entrance of Wynn Macau.
38- See the Fortune Diamond
The sight of the 3m high Fortune Diamond in the hotel lobby of Galaxy Macau is an impressive display of lights, music and lasers.
Rising from behind a waterfall and slowly sinking into a fountain, the Fortune Diamond represents the plumes of a peacock.
Catch the show from Sundays to Thursdays (10 am to noon) and Fridays, Saturdays and Public Holidays (10 am to 2 am) every 30 minutes.
39 – Watch the divers feed the fish in the Aquarium
The 8m high cylindrical MGM Aquarium is home to Blue Moon Angelfish, Clown Triggerfish, Cownose Stingrays and other colourful fish.
Hang around and you might be lucky enough to see divers feeding the fish in the impressive Water-sky Aquarium in Grande Praca.
Where: Grande Praca, MGM Macau
40- Go to the movies at one of these cinemas in Macau
- Macau Tower
- Cineteatro Macau
- Cinema Alegria
- UA Galaxy Cinemas
- Macao Cultural Centre screens art and classic films.
Where to stay in Macau with kids
Many hotels in Macau are family friendly and offer adjoining rooms and even rooms set up with toys for the children. When choosing a Macao hotel, look out for special packages for families. Here are some hotels that offer some nice touches for a special family holiday.
Sheraton Grand Macao Hotel
Sheraton Grand Macao’s Family Suites are themed with DreamWorks characters like Shrek, Po from Kung Fu Panda and Alex from Madagascar.
The adjoining kid’s rooms are decked out with pint-sized furniture, toys, cushions, game consoles and flat-screen TVs.
When checking into the hotel, King Julien’s Jungle Hut is the place for the kids to have popcorn and sweets.
There are weekend movie nights and seasonal children’s activities.
There are some that say casino-less hotels are your best bet for families in Macau, but as I’ve already mentioned, The Venetian is a wonderfully interactive experience in Macau for kids and adults alike.
St Regis Macao
St Regis Macao offers a 24-hour babysitting service and family photo tour with a personal tour guide and chauffeur.
The Family Traditions programme at St. Regis Macao offers experiential holiday experiences, such as a family cooking class where you can learn to make a variety of popular dishes, such as dim sum, Chinese roasts and Macanese dishes.
The Conrad Macau is located along the Cotai Strip and connected to the Hong Kong ferry terminal, has spacious rooms, an excellent buffet area, and an indoor pool.
The fact that it doesn’t house a casino but is in walking distance of all the main attractions is a big drawcard here.
Sofitel Macau at Ponte 16 is in Old Macau, a stone’s throw from the ruins of St. Paul’s Cathedral and Senado Square.
It has a rather beautiful outdoor pool with Romanesque statues aplenty!
Parisian Macao Famille Room
Escape to Paris in a Parisian Macao Famille Room, which has colourful bunk beds, blankets and movies for the kids. The Parisian Macao is home to Macao’s version of the Eiffel Tower.